Transformation: A Means Of Genetic Transfer

It happens in bacteria and some species in a natural manner. Transformation is also caused be artificial means. Compounds that bear the potential of getting transformation by their own or by artificial methods are termed as capable. Genetic material can be exchanged between two bacterial cells either by conjugation or transduction. Conjugation involves direct transfer of genetic material from 1 cell to the other through intimate contact. In the process of transduction bacteriophages are known to transfer the foreign genetic material into the host cell. Introduction of the international DNA into the eukaryotic cells is called transfection. Transduction may also be used as a tool for the introduction of foreign DNA into a non-bacterial mobile which may be either a plant cell or an animal cell.

Transformation was first demonstrated through an English bacteriologist Frederick Griffith in 1928 who had been searching for a vaccine against bacterial pneumonia. He discovered a harmless strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae can be produced virulent if subjected to the warmth killed virulent strains. He suspected that there is some transforming factor gift that has the capacity for making the harmless and non-virulent strain to become virulent and harmful. They isolated the DNA in the virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae and with the help of this genetic material they could make the benign non-virulent strain. They predicted this uptake and incorporation of DNA from the bacteria as transforamation. Transformation did not come to be the normal procedure until 1972 when Stanley Cohen, Annie Chang and Leslie Hsu successfully transformed Escherichia coli by fixing the germs with calcium chloride. They created an efficient and suitable procedure that became a milestone in the business of biotechnology and research.

Transformation with electroporation was designed in the late 1980s when the efficiency and the amount of bacterial cells can be raised via transformation. Transformation of plant cell and animal cell was also started and the first transgenic mouse was produced in 1982. In Transgender Biohacking named as Agrobacterium tumefaciens was discovered which was responsible for inducing tumors in the plants and the tumor inducing agent was found to be DNA plasmid called Ti-plasmid. Bacterial transformation could be predicted as a secure genetic change brought about by uptake of foreign DNA and proficiency might be described as the condition of being able to choose the exogenous DNA from the environment. Competence may be artificial or natural. Approximately 1% of the bacterial population is able to take the DNA naturally under the laboratory conditions and a lot more species have been known to take up the foreign DNA in their normal environment. These germs carry a set of genes that supply the protein machinery to deliver the DNA throughout the cell membrane.